Neurosurgical Procedures

Acoustic tumor removal Acoustic tumors arise from the eighth cranial nerve which is the nerve that transmits auditory information from the ears to the brain.  Acoustic neuromas typically present with a hearing loss or abnormality such as tinnitus (continuous high pitched noise).

Neurosurgical Procedures 

 

Aneurysm clipping Aneurysms are outpouchings of blood vessels that occur at sites along arteries where the vessel walls are weak.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

Angioplasty Angioplasty is a procedure done to open the lumen (inside) of an occluded artery or vein.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

AVM resection Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are collections of abnormal blood vessels that can steal blood supply from normal brain tissue causing seizures or that can hemorrhage causing blood clots in or around the brain.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

Baclofen pump
Brachial plexus exploration Exploration of the brachial plexus is may be necessary for injuries where there is any hope that surgical intervention with removal of scar tissue or placement of a nerve graft could restore function.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

Carotid endarterectomy Perfusion of the anterior part of the brain usually comes from the carotid artery
Carpal tunnel release The carpal tunnel is a location where the median nerve can be entrapped leading to symtpoms of pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected hand.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

Cervical discectomy Cervical diskectomy is done to decompress the spinal cord and cervical nerve roots when there is pathology in anterior to (in front of) these structures.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

Cervical laminectomy Cervical laminectomy is done for relief of pressure (pinching)   1.  on the nerves of the neck that go to the arms and hands and/or   2.  on the spinal cord that must travel through the neck and trunk before reaching the viscera, trunk, genitals, sphincters (bladder and bowel), and lower extremities.

Neurosurgical Procedures

 

Cervical stabilization posterior lateral mass plates Cervical instability 
Craniofacial reconstruction Deformities of the face and skull 
Craniosynostectomy Premature fusion of cranial sutures 
CRANIOTOMY  CRANIOTOMY is the name of the opening for most intracranial  neurosurgical procedures.   Craniotomy is actually not the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedure (actually, almost 80% of the cases done annually by community neurosurgeons are surgeries of the spine.    In surgery of the spine neurosurgeons share territory with orthopedists, in surgery of the peripheral nerves they compete for patients with plastic and orthopedic surgeons, even surgery to the extracranial carotid (the major arterial supply to the brain) is privileged to vascular surgeons — only craniotomy remains exclusively a neurosurgical procedure.

 

Brain tumor removal Gliomas are tumors that diffusely infiltrate brain and therefore cannot be completely removed.  Other intrinsic and metatstatic brain tumors are removed by the same techniques used for gliomas.

 

Gamma knife Focused high energy beam radiation

 

LAMINECTOMY Laminectomy is performed in the cervical and thoracic region for exposure of the spinal cord; in the lumbosacral region laminectomy exposes the thecal sac containing the cauda equina.  Laminectomy is usually performed to relieve compression (“decompressive laminectomy”).

 

Lumbar microdiscectomy  Lumbar discs are usually removed using microsurgical techniques

 

Lumbar laminectomy Lumbar laminectomy is a common neurosurgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

 

Lumbar puncture  Removal of cerebrospinal fluid is necessary for a number diagnostic tests and therapeutic maneuvers.   Lumbar puncture 
Meningioma removal Meningiomas are tumors that begin growing on the surface of the membrane called the “dura mater” that surrounds the brain and its thin covering layer of cerebrospinal fluid

 

Microvascular decompression Compression of the trigeminal nerve by an aberrant artery can cause a facial pain syndrome (trigeminal neuralgia), while compression of the facial nerve can cause facial tic.

 

NECK EXPOSURE Exposure of structures in the anterior neck is a part of several different neurosurgical procedures including: anterior cervical discectomyvagal nerve stimulator insertion, and exposure of the carotid artery.

 

Pallidotomy Dyskinesias resulting from treatment of Parkinson’s with Sinemet respond to ablation (destruction) of a portion of the basal ganglia called the globus pallidus.   

 

Subdural hematoma (acute) evacuation Usually a result of trauma a subdural hematoma is a space occupying blood clot mass that requires evacuation to relieve pressure on the underlying brain and to reduce elevated intracranial pressure.

 

Sural nerve biopsy Sural nerve biopsy is done

 

Temporal lobectomy “Seizure surgery” usually refers to resection of a portion of a temporal lobe. 
Transsphenoidal craniotomy The most common approach for removal of tumors of the pituitary gland or of tissues near to the gland is transsphenoidal.

 

Vagal nerve stimulator insertion  Epilepsy is controlled by medications in the vast majority of patients.  Some patients need surgery to remove a tumor or other lesion that is causing their epilepsy.  Seizure patients without brain lesions whose fits are not controllable by medications may benefit from placement of a vagal nerve stimulator. 
Ventricular shunt procedures Ventriculoperitoneal shunting is one of the commonest neurosurgical procedures.