Side Effects Of Anesthesia After Surgery

General anesthesia: Its a type of treatment that uses a combination of intravenous drugs and inhaled gases to render the patient unconscious during medical procedures and surgery. This exercise is accredited to be conducted by a trained anesthesiologist with the assistance of a certified anesthetist nurse. It causes a reversible loss of consciousness and analgesia for the patient to operate on the patient. They are administered intravenously or inhaled so that the patient is unable to feel pain during the surgery process.General anesthesia is used to trigger the functioning of different sites within the central nervous system to give room for surgery. They include:

a. Cerebral cortex: this is the outer layer of the brain responsible for tasks relating to memory, perception, and attention among other functions.

b. Thalamus: the site plays the role of relaying information from the cerebral cortex and regulate sleep, wakefulness and consciousness.

Reticulating activating system: it is a crucial site for monitoring sleep-wake cycles.

Spinal cord: it passes information from the brain to the body and vice versa. It also contains circuitry that controls reflexes and other patterns.

The patient’s muscles paralyze, breathing controlled through ventilation and monitoring of vital functions of the body. The anesthesiologist should monitor you before, during and after surgery to address any side effects and keep watch of any severe complication after that.

Side effects of general anesthesia after surgery

Various side effects may occur after the operation and may range from short-term to long-term impacts. They include:

1. Nausea and vomiting: This type of side effect occurs immediately after the procedure and trigger by some factors such as medication, type of surgery and motion.some people may feel sick for a day or two but not common to all. Anti-nausea medicines can be used to restore the patient.

2. Postoperative delirium: It is also referred to as confusion when regaining consciousness after surgery. It is another significant side effect that occurs after surgery, commonly seen in older people especially after major surgery.

General anesthesia contributes to this effect, but also other factors add such as the use of painkiller, the stress of surgery and even the stay in the hospital. The confusion come and go for about a week whereby you may have a problem remembering or focus. May worsen when one stay in the hospital for long after the surgery. Can be solved by having a family member, friend, wearing a hearing aid, glasses and even taking photos with family members and friends after the surgery.

3. Postoperative Cognitive dysfunction: It is an effect where memory loses last longer than a few hours or days. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction(POCD) can result in long-term memory and learning problems in individual patients. It is common in older people and those who experience certain diseases such as heart disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, lung diseases and Alzheimer’s disease. It is always important to notify the anesthesiologist of the experience of such conditions.The impairment is often mild and familiar, especially to major surgeries. The effect resolves within three to six months and thus the long term.

4. Dry mouth: The result felt when one wakes up after surgery. You feel parched and as long as one is not too nauseated sipping water can resolve the effect.

5. A sore throat: After the surgery, a tube is removed that aided breathing while you were unconscious. It leaves one with a sore throat.

6. Itching: An effect caused by the administration of narcotic (opioid) drugs during and after the operation. One feels itchy in they presence. Narcotics are one type of medication used for general anesthesia

7. Dizziness: It is an effect felt after surgery especially when one first stand up. Drinking plenty of fluids will help you resolve the outcome.

8. Chills and shivering: It is the falling of body temperatures during surgery. The doctors and nurse will make sure that the heat doesn’t fall too much during the operation. One may work up shivering, but this takes a few minutes or hours. The situation also is known to as hypothermia. One is also advised to inform the physician anesthesiologist of previous experience of malignant hypothermia or heat stroke.

9. Muscle aches: It’s the aching of the muscles. Drugs used to relax your muscles may have a soreness effect that occurs after the completion of the operation

10. Bladder problems: A short-term effect. You may have difficulty passing urine after the general anesthesia

Conclusion: General anesthesia is a process of making the patient unconscious to be ready for surgery. It helps the operation be conducted without the patient the feeling of pain and the doctor to perform the surgery with ease. Despite the side effects both short term and long term is an essential exercise in the operation process.

Hair loss and Neurological Disorders

There is a lot of talk on hair loss, and products that help stop hair loss, as well as treatments using western medicine – but there is much less information or awareness on neurological disorders which make hair loss worse, among other things – partly because hair loss is not a life threatening condition, although it may affect social aspects of a person’s life.

There are some hair thickening products (contains affiliate links) that you can use to help with hair growth, but to get the best results, you really have to view it from a holistic view, and that includes looking at neurological disorders. There is an extent hair thinking products actually work with men and womens hair problems, but you need to still look at the whole body, and what is causing the problem, because almost every time, it is something vital that is missing – that said – there isn’t yet a cure developed that will totally regrow all lost hair – the article linked above is simply referring to hair maintenance and keeping better quality hair, and possibly regrowing some lost hair ,and keeping that at its best level for your level of health.

One of those vital things, is stress factors, which affect and cause neurological conditions. These are everyday things, slowly building up the level of stress, making us think everything is normal and okay, but in reality, it is taking a serious toll on your body, and in result, will affect not only hair and skin, but vital life function and may eventually lead to cancer (no exaggeration).

Stress from mental and emotional situations is the number one killer of humans – it’s just that it isn’t diagnosed that way, so we often ignore it – we end up calling it heart disease, or something organ related – but the larger picture always reveals what is going on – you got heart disease, because you comfort ate, and didnt exercise, and you comfort ate because you were bothered mentally or emotionally – over a period of time, this built up even more, so you gained weight, and your arteries were clogged, and after enough time, your heart was not able to pump blood due to so much weight and artery blocks, eventually leading to heart failure or a heart attack – the source was still emotional and mental, even if the physical aspect was from physical – and also patterns of lifestyle like diet and exercise.

This is a vital aspect to understand when it comes to human mind and emotions – and essential when it comes to keeping healthy and having a good quality of long life.

In eastern medicine, they often talk about keeping things simple, for having a healthy mind, and body. We have all kinds of nervous system disorders out there, but at the end, it is us who has categorized them, not anyone else, this itself can create illusions and mental fog to be able to understand eastern medical views on stress and how it affects the body.

7 of the Most Common Neurosurgical Procedures

The following article hopes to inform you about the 7 most common neurosurgical procedures that are conducted today. These procedures range from extremely old to relatively new in origin, and a good deal of them are considered to be life-saving surgeries. So sit back, relax, and enjoy learning about the most common neurosurgical procedures.

  1. Spinal Fusion

Spinal fusion is a relatively common surgical procedure that has a similar concept to welding. Essentially, spinal fusion welds two small bones in the spine called vertebrae together to form one solid bone. This procedure is used to alleviate painful movement of the spine and any stability problems. The surgical procedure is not without risks, however — most doctors will only recommend this procedure when they are able to specifically pinpoint the source of your pain through x-rays, MRIs, or CAT scans.

Spinal fusion is used to treat the following problems:

  • Degenerative Disk Disease • Scoliosis • Herniated disc


  • Spondylolisthesis • Fractured Vertebrae • Tumor


  • Spinal Stenosis • Infection
  1. Craniotomy

A craniotomy is a surgical removal of a part of the skull covering the brain, appropriately named the “bone flap” to relieve pressure on the brain. Depending on the reason why one would need this procedure, the bone flap will either be replaced soon after the surgery or later on. This procedure is used for a plethora of reasons including diagnosing/removing a brain tumor, repairing an aneurysm, removing blood clots from a blood vessel, draining a brain abscess; repairing skull fractures or tears in the dura mater (the membrane covering the brain); relieving intracranial pressure (ICP) in the brain after a traumatic brain injury or stroke; and even as a treatment for epilepsy or movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or Dysania.

  1. Decompressive Craniectomy

A depressive craniectomy is an emergency surgery that removes a larger portion of the skull to allow a rapidly swelling brain enough room to expand. This procedure is done when a patient is suffering from a life-threatening head injury, such as a traumatic brain injury or stroke. A study conducted in 2016 that analyzed the survival rate of patients who underwent a decompressive craniectomy versus those who only underwent medical therapy found that 26.9% of patients who had the procedure died within a 6 month period versus the 48.9% of patients who did not have the surgery. Furthermore, 42.8% of patients who had the surgery had a favorable outcome, which is substantially higher than the 34.6% of nonsurgical patients who had a favorable outcome. These results yielded that a patient with a traumatic brain injury will have a better chance of survival if they undergo this radical procedure.

  1. Cranioplasty

Cranioplasty is the second part of a decompressive craniectomy procedure and is usually performed well after the craniectomy when a patient is stable enough to undergo this procedure. This surgery consists of a surgical repair of the bone defect in the skull that was created from a previous surgery or injury. During this operation, the doctor will lift up a piece of the scalp to insert either the original bone or a custom contoured graft that fits the shape of the skull that was previously removed. If the original bone is not available, a graft made of either a titanium plate or mesh, synthetic bone substitute, or acrylic will be used.

  1. Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

An anterior temporal lobectomy is a last-resort surgery to treat severe epilepsy by removing a section of the front (anterior) portion of the temporal lobe. This surgery is only used to treat intractable epilepsy in adolescents and/or adults. A recent study of this surgery proved to have favorable outcomes for those suffering from debilitating seizures: 58% of randomized patients who underwent surgical intervention were free of disabling seizures and only 10-15% of patients had unimproved 1 year after the procedure. These results are comparable to only 8% of patients become free of disabling seizures in the medical therapy (nonsurgical intervention) group. Finally, 65-80% of patients who underwent surgery were considered to be seizure free after 1-2 years.

  1. Ventriculostomy

Considered to be one of the oldest medical procedures still used today, a ventriculostomy consists of a device inserted into the brain that drains excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the head. This device can also be used to measure intracranial pressure levels in the brain. Excess CSF and blood can pool in the brain after an injury, surgery, or an aneurysm, and can cause life-threatening slowing of blood flow through the brain, that can lead to brain damage.

  1. Trepanation

Trepanation is the oldest medical procedure known to the human race and is estimated to be about 5,000 years old. In fact, about 5-10% of all skulls discovered from the Neolithic period (12,000 -4,000 years ago) were found to be trepanned (approx. 1500 skulls). Trepanation consisted of drilling a small hole into the skull for treatment of various ailments, pain, and even as a ritualistic spirit removal procedure. This procedure is still conducted today, but its name was changed to “craniotomy”.

And there you have it — 7 of the most common (and coolest) neurosurgical procedures that are conducted today,



Neurology Headache Clinic

There are many cases for problems with severe migraines that put patients in very miserable conditions – sometimes to the extent of suicide (many reported cases).

Migraine Treatment

There is some medication available such as Pizotifen, which has been used for vestibular migraines and so on – but the problem with that is, there are many severe symptoms to patients such as hair loss which then adds to the stress of coping with something affecting basic quality of life (even though hair is not an essential life function, it does affect social aspects of human society) – many people end up having neurosurgical procedures to help resolve it, whilst it is not always needed.

Patients reporting hair loss are often recommended to do natural regimes to help cope with hair dropping out, such as described on this article titled “How to Stop Hair Fall Immediately” – via – covering areas to handle hair care whilst having migraines and taking drugs like Pizotifen – it does however contain affiliate links, which are links if clicked through, and a purchase is made, a small commission will be made without any extra cost to the buyer.

As for handling migraines and treating them correctly – there is still no sure way to do this using western medical techniques – however, acupuncture has been treating such conditions successfully where patients have had great results on stopping migraines with just one treatment – “in eastern medical view, the nerve is misfiring, and just needs correcting, this is done by first diagnosing the reason of the migraine, and then treating it accordingly depending on the patient” says one acupuncturist from London.

Treatment methodology by Alternative Clinics

There are many methods of treatment, whilst sometimes it does take a while for doctors to diagnose migraines of various types – it is often that patients are told to try various medications with little or no effect – and it is good to consider looking for alternative treatments.

Currently – moxibustion can help with such conditions depending on the practitioners skill and level of knowledge on how this is treated.


Total Facet Arthroplasty – USC First is LA

USC Neurosurgery is the first Los Angeles center to be performing total facet replacements with the Total Facet Arthroplasty System (TFAS). In cooperation with Archus Medical Devices (Redmond, Washington) and the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), USC neurosurgeons are implanting the novel device in an Investigational Device Exemption Trial. Patients eligible for the trial have lumbar spinal stenosis unresponsive to nonsurgical, conservative treatment modalities.

The device replaces the facet joints, small synovial joints which are important for spinal motion and stability, but which often overgrow and compress on the nerves in the low back. Traditional surgical treatments involve removal of some of the facet joint and surrounding bone with a common surgical procedure known as a laminectomy. However, the removal of this bone can result in destabilization and collapse of the lumbar spine. For this reason, many surgeons will also perform a spinal fusion after the laminectomy. While the laminectomy and fusion are effective, fusion of the spine can reduce natural motion and may even accelerate degeneration or arthritis of the spine at other neighboring segments of the spine. The TFAS device preserves spinal motion, stabilizing the treated region but potentially preventing the unintended consequences of spinal fusion.

Study investigators Thomas Chen, MD, Charles Y. Liu, MD, PhD and Srinath Samudrala, MD have found the device to be efficacious to date, and the FDA will be reviewing the study outcomes for the next three years.  It is anticipated that the TFAS may become available for general use in the United States in 2019.